Securing boot with grub2

Password protected editing boot options

This solution does not protect you if an attacker has physical access to the server and can re-connect the hard disk (or disk image) to another running system. But it's not bad if you just want to disable editing of grub boot options for unauthorized operators who however have access to the boot process (for example, to the VM console).

Create /boot/grub2/custom.cfg with the following content:

# List of users with superuser rights:
set superusers="manager"
export superusers
# Define another user "user":
password user Abcd1234
# Set encrypted pass for user "manager":
password_pbkdf2 manager grub.pbkdf2.sha512.10000....Very.Long.Hexadecimal.Line

How to get this Very.Long.Hexadecimal.Line ? Use grub2-mkpasswd-pbkdf2:

# grub2-mkpasswd-pbkdf2
Enter password:
Reenter password:
PBKDF2 hash of your password is grub.pbkdf2.sha512.10000....Very.Long.Hexadecimal.Line

Once you've set this file, the grub will ask for user and password at boot time. Reboot and check this (some distributions like Fedora 25 will not ask for user/password) This is not usefull for server farm, because every reboot require you open console and enter password.

As a solution, --unrestricted option should be added to default menuentry. Fedora adds this option in template file to fix this for every menuentry even after kernel update:

# grep unrestricte /etc/grub.d/*
/etc/grub.d/10_linux:CLASS="--class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os --unrestricted"

Another fine grained option for menuentry is --users, that allow particular user access to this entry too. I think this option is useless, therefore will be no example for that.


Updated on Wed Jun 7 20:09:14 IDT 2017 by Oleg Volkov More documentations here